Researchers conducted a multi-omics study to explore associations of 20 previously identified CpG sites with a diverse set of almost 4000 deep molecular phenotypes, including blood, urinary and salivary metabolomics, lipidomics, proteomics and glycomics.

Altogether, they report 138 multi-omics associations at these selected CpG sites. Mendelian randomization suggests a causal effect of metabolite levels on methylation of obesity-associated CpG sites. This study suggests that multi-omics-associated CpG methylation can provide functional read-outs for the underlying regulatory response mechanisms to disease or environmental factors.