How does antibiotic/ drug use influence urinary markers?
It is possible that some commonly used drugs or their metabolic products can especially be seen in morning urine, but sampling time, medication time, and especially the dose are affecting the possible interference or metabolic response in urine. Due to lack of research done on this topic, it is not possible to give comprehensive estimate on the effects. If you are in doubt, please consult us for further information.
What about bacterial growth in urine?
There might be bacterial growth or enzymatic activity in the samples, if samples are not collected and stored properly (immediate storage at -80°C), which again might influence the concentration of certain metabolites (especially SFA and OA). This is of course especially an issue for 24-hour urine, but minor deviations may be expected for all sample types.
How are severe diseases affecting urine composition?
This heavily depends on the disease. There has not been too much research yet into this, so many of these effects are still uncovered.
What if the urine contains high amounts of protein?
Urine protein concentration interferes with the accurate determination of a few biomarkers. The severity of interference is proportional to the concentration of protein. For example, severe albuminuria affects the accurate determination of a few amino acids and other biomarkers. However, it should be noted that biological interactions make it very difficult to estimate the exact concentrations of biomarkers regardless of technology in the case of severe albuminuria.